By Roger J. Katz, Attorney at Law and Stephen L. D’Andrilli
New York, NY -(Ammoland.com)- “He said to himself—though not without a dim inner protest: We are our own destiny. If we are victims at all, or conquerors, we have done it in our minds, and our will, or with our faulty judgments or our illusions. If we permit others to exploit us, in private life or in government, we chose it. Or we made the fatal error of acquiescence, and for that we should be condemned. The world forgives everything but weakness and submission. It forgives everyone but a victim. For there is always battle, even if you die in it. In any event death comes to all men. How you died was your own choice, fighting or submitting.” ~Taylor Caldwell, Captains And The Kings, Part One, Chapter 17, page 178, Doubleday & Company, Inc. (1972)
Apart From Substantive And Substantial Evidence Of Felony Crimes Involving, One, The Mishandling Of Classified Information, Two, Corruption And Bribery In High Public Office, And, Three, Intentionally Lying To Officials Of Government Undertaking A Legitimate Investigation Into Criminal Activity,
Did Hillary Rodham Clinton, as Secretary Of State, engage in any conduct that rises to the Level of outright Treason? If Not, does the totality Of Clinton’s misconduct as Secretary Of State support a charge of Treason?
To answer these questions we should first take a look at the history of “treason.” We need to place the crime of “treason” in historical context. We can trace the notion of ‘treason’ to English law. An Eminent English Jurist of the Eighteenth Century, Sir William Blackstone “wrote that treason ‘imports a betraying, treachery, or breach of faith.’ Blackstone further noted that treason against the sovereign—termed ‘high treason’—amounts to the ‘highest civil crime.’” “State Treason: The History and Validity of Treason Against Individual States,” J. Taylor McConkie, Brigham Young University, B.A.; Georgetown University Law Center, J.D. Trial Attorney, United States Department of Justice, Civil Division, 101 Ky. L.J. 281, 283 (2012/2013).
Although U.S. law takes its cue from English law, the betrayal against the Sovereign that Blackstone talks about is betrayal against the Monarch, the King of England. Of course, the U.S. does not have a Monarch although one might argue that, in effect, we do have a Monarch. But, even as the U.S. President has, in evident ways in recent years, assumed ever more power unto himself, still, under our Constitution and our system of laws, it is the American people in whom sovereignty ultimately resides. The People of the United States as a singular body are essentially the Country. An act of betrayal against Country is, then, an act of betrayal against the People of the United States in whom ultimate power exists under our system of laws and under our Constitution.
Can A Charge Of Treason Be Levelled Against The Highest Official In The Land?
Where power to make laws, enforce laws, and interpret laws rests in a Monarch—that power is absolute. A subject of the Sovereign can betray the Sovereign and thereby commit treason. But, the Sovereign cannot betray himself if he is the Supreme Law of the Land.
In the United States, though, the U.S. President, as a citizen of the United States, is not a law unto himself—certainly not if our Constitution has any force and efficacy.
Yet some U.S. Presidents have, in their deeds, if not in their words, ascribed such power to themselves. If betrayal, treachery, or breach of faith to Country is, in essence, as William Blackstone said, the sine qua non of “treason,” what specific conduct of an actor rises to the level of betrayal, treachery, or breach of faith to Country?
The Laws Of Treason In America
The crime of treason appears in two significant places. First and foremost, the crime of Treason appears in the United States Constitution. Article III, Section 3, Clauses 1 and 2 set forth:
“Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.
The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attainted.”
Of note, the President of the United States, and other high-ranking officers are not exempt from a charge of treason levelled against them as it relates to their betrayal of the American People while in Office.
The U.S. Constitution makes specific provision for this betrayal. Article II, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution sets forth, “The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.”
The crime of treason is also codified in federal Statute. You will find the crime of treason in the United States Code: Title 18, “Crimes and Criminal Procedure:” “Part I, “Crimes;” “Chapter 115, “Treason, Sedition, and Subversive Activities.” 18 U.S.C. § 2381, titled, clearly, plainly, and succinctly, “Treason,” sets forth:
“Whoever, owing allegiance to the United States, levies war against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, is guilty of treason and shall suffer death, or shall be imprisoned not less than five years and fined under this title but not less than $10,000; and shall be incapable of holding any office under the United States.”
Take Note Of Two Important Points In The Above Account Of Treason As Codified In Our Constitution And In Our Statutes
- One, the founders of our Republic felt that the crime of treason was so horrific that they made specific provision for it in the U.S. Constitution, specifically warning the highest public officials in the Land, that they, no less than any ordinary citizen, are not above the law and that they may be charged with the crime of treason if their actions ever betray their duties to Country, to the citizens of the Nation, and to the Constitution whom they are sworn to serve.
- Two, concomitant with and consistent with the Constitutional provision, the federal statute clarifies the Constitutional prohibition and is, to our knowledge, the only federal Statute that specifically, directly, and unequivocally, within a few words of mentioning the crime, calls for the possibility of death for those individuals who are convicted of it. Thus, Congress made abundantly clear the particular heinousness of the crime of treason.
We continue our exposition of the crime of treason in forthcoming articles. Our purpose is to ascertain whether a reasonable legal basis exists under our law and under our Constitution to indict Hillary Rodham Clinton on the charge of treason.
With less than six weeks remaining before the U.S. Presidential election every American citizen has a critical choice to make. It is absolutely incumbent on all Americans—who care deeply for the continuation of our Country as an independent Sovereign Nation, beholding to no other Nation, subordinated to no other Nation, who truly believes in the rule of law and who holds to our inviolate rights and liberties as codified in our sacred Bill of Rights—to make certain that a likely criminal, Hillary Rodham Clinton, sets not one foot into the White House.
There is only one way to prevent a travesty and calamity from ensuing. The stakes could not be higher. Regardless of your past or present Party affiliation, you must cast your vote for Donald Trump. The Republic will be well lost if Hillary Clinton—a person who cares little for any American and even less for our Constitution, for our system of laws, and for the continuation of our Country as an independent, sovereign Nation—actually becomes the 45th U.S. President.
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